a) Might be a Problem if the Chip itsself gets fried because of a short circuit, that kind of extensive damage would be hard to repair. But if its just a matter of seperating to connections, well that could be done.
b) is no problem if the robot does not alter the original plans but instead creates kind of an annotated copy. The internal diagonstics system would then be able to compare its readings with that copy and then compare that copy with the original plans. Problem solved.
But the way that is described in that article doesn't have anything to do with a robot and plans, its just simple physics, kind of a "non-intelligent repair". It doesn't regognize that its broken and then fixes it, the process of breaking ultimately starts the process of fixing.