If you really will not do a clean install at this time, I will give a try at fixing this issue, though I can guarantee nothing.
Can you please run SFC one more time and upload the latest log? We have out hands tied a bit if we cannot see the log first hand. Please follow the tutorial here: System Files - SFC Command
following the instructions in the top yellow box, then upload or paste inline the sfcdetails.txt file created on your Desktop. Thanks! 800736B2 ERROR_SXS_INVALID_ACTCTXDATA_FORMAT
The application binding data format is invalid.
There are several things to do. Temporarily disable all
real time protection (anti-virus program) etc. and try again. This is regularly the cause for this error, in particular real time cookie scanning software.
I know that you have already done some of this, but please redo it. Thanks!
Reset the WU components: How do I reset Windows Update components?
Reset the WU modules: Repair & Fix Windows Updates with Fix WU Utility | The Windows Club
Run the System Update Readiness Tool (about an hour to run, or less) Description of the System Update Readiness Tool for Windows Vista, for Windows Server 2008, for Windows 7, and for Windows Server 2008 R2
Zip up the contents of the C:\Windows\Logs folder (right click on folder > Send to > Compressed (zip) archive, and upload it to your next post.
Go to Start>>Search>>services.msc
and check below services exist, have correct settings and are working BITS
:Automatic(Delayed),started Windows Update
: Automatic(Delayed),started Windows Modules Installer
This is a quote from Flavius, please follow it and report back.