I had the same issue. After a Windows Update: No Internet whatsoever, a dlink router didn't detect the computer, the connection icon appeared but it said limited connectivity, etc.
That computer uses DSL, called the ISP. Ping worked fine so it was not an ISP related issue.
I tried the advices offered here, some others on the web but nothing. Until I came with this page: NVIDIA nForce Networking Controller Driver
After dowloading the chipset driver file I went to Control Panel > System > Device Manger> right click on Nforce network card > properies > driver tab > Unistall driver
The network adapter dissapeared from the device manager. Then I extracted the chipset driver files and copied all the .dll files to c:\windows\system32 and c:\windows\system32\drivers
Restarted and voila! Internet brought from heaven.