Im back already. Heres my next idea and the thought process behind it. Per your statements, everything installs except Windows Software, lets go with that and see how it goes.
Lets check the OS for any corruption or problems, first
System Files - SFC Command
If it comes up positive run three times to try to repair.
If that comes up negative, try to install something, look at the time. If it does not install, go to search by the start button, type event viewer. In event viewer, put your cursor on administrative in the left panel. In administrative look or any errors or critical, in the right panel at the time of the problem, report back