What I'm looking for is when the error comes up. For instance, do you get that error when you try to boot your computer? How far has the boot process gone when you get the message? For instance, has Windows started to install?
What I would try in safe mode is to go to Start\Programs\Accessories\Command Prompt. Right click on Command Prompt and select "run as administrator." Type the following at the prompt- chkdsk /f